By Anthony Biraglia

In the civil case of Hobet Mining, LLC v. Epling, the Fourth Circuit affirmed an administrative law judge’s (“ALJ”) award of benefits to a coal miner under 30 U.S.C. 901(a), known as the Black Lung Benefits Act (“Act”). The Court agreed with the Benefits Review Board’s decision that substantial evidence supported the ALJ’s finding that the miner was entitled to the statutory fifteen-year presumption (“Presumption”) in § 921(c)(4), which provides that miners employed for more than fifteen years in an underground coal mine presumptively qualify for benefits under the Black Lung Benefits Act when they can prove existence of a totally disabling respiratory impairment. In a published opinion released on April 17, 2015, the Court denied the mine operator’s petition for review when it failed to rebut the presumption.

Facts and Procedural History

The Act aims to give benefits to those totally disabled due to pneumoconiosis, more commonly known as black lung disease. Carl Epling (“Epling”) qualified for benefits under the Act because he spent more than twenty-one years in an underground coal mine, most recently for Hobet Mining, LLC (“Hobet”) in 1999, and subsequently developed medical conditions that rendered him totally disabled for the purposes of the Act.

The ALJ reviewing Epling’s claim applied the Presumption under § 921(c)(4), and awarded benefits to Epling when Hobet was unable to overcome the Presumption. The Benefits Review Board affirmed the ALJ’s decision, and Hobet appealed to the Fourth Circuit.

Issue and Standard of Review

On appeal, Hobet argued that it did overcome the Presumption, and thus the ALJ’s decision to apply the Presumption was not supported by substantial evidence. The Presumption consists of two prongs. First, the ALJ presumes that the claimant’s pneumoconiosis arises from his coal mine employment. Hobet did not contest that prong on appeal. Instead, Hobet contested the second prong of the Presumption, which requires the ALJ to presume that a claimant’s pneumoconiosis is a cause of his disability. Hobet argued that the ALJ erred in discounting the testimony of one of Hobet’s experts, who opined that Epling’s pneumoconiosis was not a cause of his medical problems. The Fourth Circuit’s review of claims under the Act is “limited,” and the Court only considers whether the findings of the ALJ were supported by substantial evidence, legally rational, and consistent with the Act.


The ALJ’s decision to discredit the expert’s causation testimony was supported by substantial evidence because the testimony was based on an erroneous finding that the claimant did not have pneumoconiosis.


The Court, citing precedent on this issue, reasoned that it is extremely difficult for a doctor that does not recognize the existence of pneumoconiosis to account for its contribution, or lack thereof, to a claimant’s medical condition. For this reason, expert opinions that do not diagnose pneumoconiosis are to be discredited unless the ALJ identify specific reasons why the causation testimony is legitimate despite the failure to diagnose pneumoconiosis, and even then may not be assigned significant weight. The Court found that Hobet’s expert did not provide separate reasons for his opinion that pneumoconiosis was not a cause of Epling’s condition, and thus his testimony was properly discredited based on his failure to diagnose pneumoconiosis at the outset. Accordingly, the Fourth Circuit affirmed the Benefits Review Board’s decision, and upheld Epling’s award.