By Blake Stafford

On March 17, 2016, the Fourth Circuit issued its published opinion in Raynor v. Pugh, a civil case regarding prisoner civil rights.  James Herman Raynor, an inmate at a Virginia correctional facility, brought an action under 42 U.S.C. § 1983 alleging that G. Pugh, the Prison Housing Manager at the facility, violated the Eighth Amendment by failing to protect Raynor from an attack by another inmate.  The district court granted summary judgment in favor of Pugh after denying Raynor’s requests for discovery and subsequently finding no “genuine” disputes of material fact.  The Fourth Circuit vacated and remanded, finding (1) that genuine disputes of material facts permeated Raynor’s claim, precluding summary judgment; and (2) that it was error for the district court to deny Raynor the opportunity to conduct discovery.

Facts & Procedural History

Raynor is an inmate at Sussex II State Prison who suffers from various medical ailments, including seizures, blackouts, blood issues, heart issues, and breathing issues.  Raynor, who was then-cellmates with inmate K. Mullins, requested that Pugh move him to a different cell so he could be housed with a “caretaker” inmate who had volunteered to assist him with his health conditions.  However, Pugh determined that Mullins, rather than Raynor, would have to relocate. After Pugh delivered this news to both Mullins and Raynor, Mullins allegedly threatened to assault Raynor.  Pugh was allegedly still present when Mullins made this threat and responded that he did not care what Mullins did.  Soon thereafter, Mullins did physically assault Raynor, and Pugh allegedly watched the entire assault while failing to take any action until after the assault had ended.  Because of the attack, Raynor allegedly suffered significant spinal damage that caused constant and severe pain as well as a complete loss of leg control, forcing Raynor to be confined to a wheelchair for the rest of his life.

After exhausting administrative remedies, Raynor filed this § 1983 action, alleging that Pugh’s deliberate indifference to Raynor’s safety, and the resulting injuries, constituted cruel and unusual punishment in violation of the Eighth Amendment.  Raynor submitted the following evidence to support the alleged facts: a verified complaint describing the incident; a corroborating affidavit from another inmate who had witnessed the assault; copies of several request for medical attention for severe spinal pain; and six doctor’s reports describing spinal x-rays taken before and after the assault.  Raynor also moved for discovery of the security video of the incident, any related prison policies or procedures, and all prison reports and documents related to the investigation of the assault.  Pugh disputed essentially every fact alleged by Raynor, contending that no threatening comments were made in Pugh’s presence before the assault; that he was in a different part of the prison during the assault; that prison policy would have prevented him from intervening even if he had been present; and that Raynor’s injuries were minor—any spinal problems were attributable to a prior accident.  Pugh moved for summary judgment and for a protective order to stay discovery based on a qualified immunity defense.

The district court denied Raynor’s discovery requests, granted Pugh’s discovery protective order (without reaching the merits of the qualified immunity defense), and granted summary judgment in favor of Pugh.  The district court found that the disputes of fact were not “genuine” due to a lack of evidentiary support for Raynor’s claims.

Prison Official Liability for Eighth Amendment Violations

The Eighth Amendment, which prohibits “cruel and unusual punishment,” imposes a duty on corrections officers to protect prisoners from violence at the hands of other prisoners.  To translate this duty into constitutional liability for prison officials under 42 U.S.C. § 1983, a plaintiff must establish that the incident satisfies a two-part test that consists of both an objective and a subjective inquiry.  First, the inmate must establish a serious deprivation of his rights in the form of a serious or significant physical or emotional injury.  Second, an inmate must show that the prison official had a sufficiently culpable state of mind, which, in this context, consists of deliberate indifference to inmate health or safety.  This second prong requires the prison official to have actual knowledge of the excessive risk of danger, which can be proven through both direct and circumstantial evidence.  Additionally, a prison guard who does not intervene in the assault can avoid liability if such intervention would have placed the guard in danger of physical harm.  This does not, however, shield a prison guard from liability for completely failing to take any action to stop an ongoing assault.


The Fourth Circuit found that genuine disputes of material fact were present for both the objective-injury prong as well as the subjective-knowledge prong, precluding summary judgment.

(1) Objective-Injury.  Raynor alleged specific facts describing facial trauma and spinal injury caused by the attack.  These facts were supported by his verified complaint, several written requests for medical attention, and six medical reports interpreting x-rays of his spine before and after the incident.  Additionally, he offered a witnessing inmate’s affidavit, which describes Mullins’ final blow that allegedly caused the spinal injury.  Pugh disputed the truth of all of the facts alleged by Raynor; however, because Raynor offered evidence as to material facts concerning the seriousness of the injury, the Fourth Circuit found that summary judgment was precluded.

(2) Subjective-Knowledge.  Raynor alleged specific facts in his verified complaint (which are corroborated by the witnessing inmate’s affidavit) to support his allegation that—in two independent ways—Pugh acted with deliberate indifference.  First, Raynor alleged that Mullins told Pugh that he was going to attack Raynor and that Pugh responded that he did not care what Mullins did.  Second, he alleged that Pugh had knowledge of the attack as it was happening because Pugh watched the entire incident.  By failing to radio for help, Pugh’s response was allegedly not reasonable to shield him from liability for failing to protect Raynor from the attack and resulting injuries.  The Fourth Circuit found that each of these independent grounds supported Raynor’s contention that Pugh had actual knowledge of an excessive risk to Raynor’s safety.  Thus, summary judgment was precluded on this prong as well.


In sum, the Fourth Circuit found that genuine disputes of material fact permeated both prongs of Raynor’s § 1983 claim; thus, the district court erred in granting summary judgment.  The Court vacated the district court’s judgment and remanded the case.  Additionally, the Court found that, by failing to rule on the qualified immunity defense asserted by Pugh, the district court erred in granting Pugh’s protective order against discovery.  Thus, the Fourth Circuit instructed the district court to allow appropriate discovery on remand.


The concurring opinion agreed with the majority’s conclusions regarding discovery and the subjective-knowledge prong.  However, the concurrence found that, given Raynor’s complex medical history, the evidence Raynor proffered for the objective-injury prong was insufficient to allow a lay juror to determine whether Raynor’s spinal injuries were attributable to Mullins’ attack.